Magnetic force and torque

т = m × B

F = ∇ (m · B)

т: magnetic torque applied on an object (Nm)

m: magnetic moment vector (Am2)

B: magnetic flux density (T)

F: magnetic force applied on an object (N)

Newton’s second law of motion

F = ma

F: net external force applied on an object (N)

m: object mass (kg)

a: acceleration of the object (m/s2)

Mass-energy equivalence

E = mc2

E: equivalence energy of an object (J)

m: object mass (kg)

c: speed of light (m/s)

Ampère’s circuital law

∇ × B = μ0 J

∇ ×: the curl operator

B: magnetic flux density (T)

μ0: vacuum permeability (H/m)

J: the total current density (A·m−2)

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